Environmental physiology and shelter engineering with special reference to domestic animals LX: Vaporization rates in Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey calves during growth at constant 50⁰ and 80⁰ temperatures
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The evaporation of water as a means of heat loss in cattle becomes increasingly important as environmental temperature approaches or exceeds body temperature. Evaporative heat loss is not limited by low temperature gradients between the body and surroundings at higher environmental temperatures as are radiation, convection, and conduction. The limiting factors of water evaporation from cattle are vapor pressure gradient, vaporizing surface area, and the secretion rate of the body surfaces (by sweating and diffusion or osmotic processes).