International media and economic policy: A comparative media analysis of 2002 U.S. steel tariffs [abstract]
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This paper compares American and European media coverage of the U.S. Emergency Safeguard Measures for steel which were imposed from March 2002-Dec. 2003 and levied tariffs of up to 30% on some steel imports. Of European Union members, the United Kingdom and France were among the most heavily affected by the tariffs. Mainstream newspapers in those countries presented mainly negative information and opinions of the U.S. policy. There were no significant differences between British and French coverage of this issue. In comparison, U.S. sources were predominantly neutral. However, headlines and prominent articles in all countries often reflected negative attitudes, and the most opinionated language came from journalists themselves, not outside sources, giving quantitative support to theories of chronic press negativity.