Culturally transcendent, developmental model of multicultural counseling competence: an integration of theories
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This study proposed and empirically examined a developmental model of multicultural counseling competence among mental health service trainees based on an integration of the Cognitive and Cultural Flex Theory of Personality, Contact Theory, and Theory of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy. The model incorporated four culturally transcendent variables: (a) multicultural experiences, (b) cognitive flexibility, (c) cultural flexibility, and (d) multicultural personality. Based on the proposed model, it was hypothesized that multicultural experiences, cognitive flexibility, cultural flexibility, and multicultural personality would predict multicultural counseling competence. Results provided support for the utility of the model. Specifically, multicultural experiences predicted cognitive and cultural flexibility. These two variables, in turn, predicted multicultural personality, which was positively related to multicultural counseling competence. Implications of the study and suggestions for future research are discussed.