What drugs are effective for periodic limb movement disorder?
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Clonazepam improves subjective sleep quality and polysomnogram (PSG) measures of leg movements more than placebo (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, a small randomized controlled trial [RCT]); temazepam produces similar results (SOR: C, extrapolated from a small comparison trial). Melatonin and L-dopa consistently improve certain PSG measures, but their effect on subjective sleep quality varies; valproate improves only subjective measures; apomorphine injections reduce limb movements but not awakenings (SOR: C, very small crossover and cohort trials). Estrogen replacement therapy is ineffective for periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) associated with menopause (SOR: B, RCT).
Journal of Family Practice, 61(5) 2012: 296+.