The changing face of Joan of Arc: the appropriation of Joan of Arc in twentieth-century American theatre
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The Changing Face of Joan of Arc: The Appropriation of Joan of Arc in Twentieth-century American Theatre shows that the evolution of Joan of Arc's image reflected the culture of each era, and illustrated the changing social roles for women. The dramatic treatments of Joan of Arc have been divided into the following categories: Joan of Arc the warrior, which provides an in-depth look at Joan's role in America during the First and Second World Wars; Joan of Arc the martyr, which examines the aftermath of the Second World War on American culture in regard to the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC); Joan of Arc the woman, which investigates Joan of Arc's treatment as the proto-type for the feminist movement; and, Joan of Arc the survivor, which presents modern, imaginative retellings of the Joan of Arc legend that revolve around the premise that Joan of Arc was never executed. The plays selected convey Joan of Arc's image for each time period. For Joan of Arc the warrior, the principle play examined is Maxwell Anderson's Joan of Lorraine (1946). Next, the principle play examined for Joan of Arc the martyr is Lillian Hellman's The Lark (1955), a free adaptation of Jean Anouilh's L'Alouette. The section for Joan of Arc the woman examines the following plays: Francesca Dunfey's One With the Flame (1962), Arthur Kopit's Chamber Music (1963), Jules Feiffer's Knock Knock (1976), Lavonne Mueller's Little Victories (1984), and Carolyn Gage's The Second Coming of Joan of Arc (1987). Lastly, Joan of Arc the survivor comprises analyses of Virginia Scott's Bogus Joan (1992), Don Nigro's Joan of Arc in the Autumn (1998), Erik Ehn's Wholly Joan's (1988) and Lanford Wilson's Book of Days (1998).
Table of Contents
What is so iconic about Joan of Arc -- Joan of Arc: the warrior -- Joan of Arc: the martyr -- Joan of Arc: the woman -- Joan of Arc: the survivor -- Conclusion