Permeability, clay mineralogy, and microfabric of fine-grained sediments from the Nankai Trough and Shikoku Basin, offshore southwest Japan
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The Nankai Trough, a convergent plate boundary between the subducting Philippine Sea plate and overriding Eurasian plate, is located off the coast of southwest Japan. This study covers the central portion of the Kumano transect, eastern province of the Nankai Trough, which consists of six morphotectonic zones, such as, from southeast to northwest, subduction inputs in the Shikoku Basin, trench zone, frontal thrust zone, imbricated thrust zone, megasplay fault zone, and Kumano forearc basin. The objectives of this study are: (1) to show how permeability varies as a function of burial depth, lithostratigraphy, and structural position within the Nankai Trough subduction zone; and (2) to document the permeability anisotropy and consider how it changes with microfabric and mineralogy. Constant-flow permeability tests were executed to measure permeability for vertical (along-core) and horizontal (cross-core) sections of twenty-one core samples collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 316 and 333. Comparison of the horizontal (kh) to the vertical (kv) permeability defines the anisotropy (kh/kv). Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used to image the fabric of samples in horizontal and vertical sections. The images were analyzed to compute the standard deviations and the indexes (i) of microfabric orientation. Therelative clay mineral percentages in bulk sediment were calculated using previously analyzed X-ray diffraction data.
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