Apparatus and method for determining the hardness of butter fat
Perkins, A. E. (Albert Edward), b. 1881
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One of the important properties to be taken into account in judging the quality of butter is the so called Body, by which is meant the hardness, consistency or firmness of the butter. Body is described by the butter Judge in such terms as perfect, firm, hard or tallow, weak and sticky and is estimated by pressing a piece of the butter between the thumb and finger or between the tongue and the roof of the mouth. This property is, doubtless, very closely related to the hardness of the butter fat; although it is not definitely known just to what extent the body of the butter can be influenced by the manner of handling the milk and cream, churning, washing and working the butter, etc. Probably some of these factors do exert a certain influence in this respect, although they are more directly concerned in establishing another property of the better known as texture. It has heretofore been impossible to secure definite data on this point on account of the lack of a suitable method for measuring the hardness of butter.