A comparison of Cicero's style in his early and late orations
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Cicero's oratorical activity extends over a period of thirty-eight years. His first oration pro P. Quinctio belongs to the year 81 B.C., his last ones in M. Antonium orationes Phillippicae I-XIV to the years 44 and 43 B.C. During this time his style in regard to the use of particular words, expressions and sound effects underwent very noticeable changes. His Orations may easily be grouped into three periods, so as to include in the first all that were written between the years 81 B.C. and 69 B.C., in the second, those between 69 B.C. and 52 B.C., in the third those between the years 46 B.C. and 43 B.C. Owing to the extent to which this subject might be carried the scope of this paper has been limited to a consideration from a linguistic and grammatical standpoint of various peculiar forms and expressions suggested in the orations pro Sex. Roscio and in M. Antonium orationes Phillippicae. These orations were selected as being particularly illustrative of his earliest and latest style of writing. An attempt has been made to discover the extent to which he has used certain archaic or colloquial expressions and to examine parallel expressions in the three periods of his oratorical career. References have been made to the writings of Plautus and Terence on the supposition that forms occurring frequently in their writings but seldom in later Latin may be regarded as archaic or colloquial. In the former the text followed in every case is that of Leo, in the latter that of Dziatzko. In Cicero's Orations the text of C. F. W. Muller in the Teubner series has been followed except when stated otherwise.