Is prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening indicated for any subgroup of men?
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Although African American men, men with a first-degree relative with prostate cancer (CaP), and older men constitute higher-risk subgroups, no well-designed randomized controlled trials are available that show PSA testing to improve mortality or quality of life for these or any other groups of men. A trend toward detecting more localized cancers and a possible decreasing mortality rate from CaP in all men may be related to PSA testing, lead-time bias, or both. (Grade of recommendation: C, based on inadequate reference standards and an unclear clinical decision rule.)
Journal of Family Practice, 51(2) 2002: 113.