What are effective strategies for reducing the risk of steroid-induced osteoporosis?
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Calcium, in combination with vitamin D, prevents bone loss and is recommended in all patients. (Grade of recommendation: A, based on systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials [RCTs]). Alendronate and risedronate prevent fractures and should be considered for all patients at increased risk of fracture (5 mg of prednisone or equivalent, daily for longer than 3 months). (Grade of recommendation: A, based on RCTs) Replacement of sex hormones in hypogonadal patients prevents bone loss and increases bone mineral density (BMD). (Grade of recommendation: A for women, based on RCTs; B for men, based on one randomized, crossover trial.) Calcitonin prevents bone loss for up to 1 year. (Grade of recommendation: A, based on systematic review.)
Journal of Family Practice, 51(12) 2002: 1076.