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dc.contributor.authorPenmetsa, Santhieng
dc.contributor.authorSimmons, Michaeleng
dc.date.issued2005-08eng
dc.description.abstractAngiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) are the first-line agents for reducing the risk of diabetic nephropathy. For patients intolerant to these agents, non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists (NDCAs), such as verapamil and diltiazem, are preferred agents to treat hypertension in those with diabetes who have proteinuria (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A, based on a systematic review). Diuretics are effective in treating hypertension in patients with diabetes who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. One study suggests sustained-release indapamide (a diuretic) is effective as first-line treatment in hypertensive patients with diabetes and proteinuria (SOR: B, based on a randomized controlled trial [RCT]). Atenolol was as effective as the ACE inhibitor captopril in lowering the risk of diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications, according to a substudy of the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetic Study (UKPDS) (SOR: B, based on RCT).eng
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Family Practice, 54(8) 2005: 711-713.eng
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10355/3291eng
dc.languageEnglisheng
dc.publisherFamily Physicians Inquiries Networkeng
dc.relation.ispartofClinical Inquiries, 2005 (MU)eng
dc.relation.ispartofcommunityUniversity of Missouri-Columbia. School of Medicine. Department of Family and Community Medicine. Family Physicians Inquiries Networkeng
dc.rightsOpenAccess.eng
dc.rights.licenseThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License.eng
dc.subjectnon-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists (NDCAs)eng
dc.subjectrenal diseaseeng
dc.subject.lcshHypertensioneng
dc.subject.lcshKidneys Diseaseseng
dc.subject.lcshProteinuriaeng
dc.subject.lcshDiabetic nephropathieseng
dc.titleFor those intolerant to ACE inhibitors and ARBs, what is the best therapy for reducing the risk of diabetic nephropathy?eng
dc.typeArticleeng


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