A comparative analysis of the relationships among language, oral vocabulary, reading vocabulary, and reading comprehension for adolescent students with learning disabilities and emotional/behavioral disorders
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This study is an examination of the language-literacy connection for adolescent students with disabilities. The author provides an overview of the related areas of research: 1) language-literacy connections in young children, 2) vocabulary and reading comprehension connections in older students, 3) adolescent struggling readers, and 4) language-literacy connections for students with disabilities, specifically Learning Disabilities (LD) and Emotional Disturbance (ED). Using univariate and multivariate analyses of variance (ANOVA and MANOVA) and regression analyses, the relationships among language and literacy were examined. Results indicate that the language-literacy connection continues into adolescence. In addition, students with LD and ED perform similarly on comprehensive measures, but differences emerge when specific aspects of language and reading are examined.