Controlled Low-Strength Material (CLSM) produced from limestone fines and other byproducts
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Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) or flowable fill mixtures are typically specified and used in lieu of compacted fill especially for backfill, utility bedding, void fill and bridge approaches. This study developed flowable fill mixtures containing only quarry fines, fly ash, synthetic gypsum and water, for different applications without any cement or good quality aggregates, to reduce costs significantly. The study used by-products of two industries, quarry fines and fly ash, to produce cheap cementitious CLSM mixtures that are flowable in their fresh state. Successful use of quarry fines in CLSM mixtures can reduce costs related to storage and disposal of fines, save dwindling landfill space, and generate additional revenue for quarries. This study also evaluated the use of synthetic gypsum obtained from industrial waste products. The use of soil as a compacted fill is generally responsible for various issues related to differential settlement. Some of the most important causes of differential settlement are compression of poorly compacted embankment soils, poor material characteristics, non-homogeneity of embankment soils, and erosion of underlying soils. Considering limited funds available to federal and state highway agencies, the developed group of mixtures should be economically feasible and it should provide a good, constant density, homogeneous support layer with low settlement.
Table of Contents
Introduction -- Literature review -- Materials, mixtures proportions and test procedures -- Results and discussions -- Summary, conclusions and suggested future research