The effects of perceived visible characteristics of customers on servers' tipping expectations
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[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHOR'S REQUEST.] Assuming that tipping size varies according to customers' characteristics and that servers judge tipping size by looking at customers' visible characteristics, this study identifies the differences in servers' tipping size expectations and their intentions to give quality service depending on customers' gender, attire, and race. This study used a survey which included sixteen customers' photographs and a repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted for the analysis. The results of this study suggest that there are significant differences and interactions in servers' tipping size expectations and intentions to give quality service according to customers' race, gender and type of attire. The findings from this study are expected to contribute to the development of guidelines for training servers as one of the tools in human resource management.
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