What are effective treatments for oppositional and defiant behaviors in preadolescents?
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Parent training is effective for treating oppositional and defiant behaviors (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A, based on systematic reviews). Parent training programs are standardized, short-term interventions that teach parents specialized strategies--including positive attending, ignoring, the effective use of rewards and punishments, token economies, and time out --to address clinically significant behavior problems. In addition to parent training, other psychosocial interventions are efficacious in treating oppositional and defiant behavior. To date, no studies have assessed the efficacy of medication in treating children with pure oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). However, studies have shown amphetamines to be effective for children with ODD and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (SOR: A, based on a meta-analysis).
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