What interventions reduce the risk of contrast nephropathy for high-risk patients?
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Several interventions may reduce the risk of contrast nephropathy for high-risk patients; however, most evidence uses surrogate markers for clinically relevant outcomes. Because dehydration is a risk factor for developing contrast nephropathy, periprocedural hydration is routinely recommended (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C, expert opinion). Single studies have suggested that isotonic saline is associated with less risk than half-normal saline, and hydration with fluids containing sodium bicarbonate is more efficacious than those containing isotonic saline (SOR: B, single randomized controlled trial [RCT]).
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