What physical exam techniques are useful to detect malingering?
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No examination technique objectively proves malingering (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C, expert opinion). Waddell's signs are associated with poor treatment outcomes but cannot discriminate organic from nonorganic causes (SOR: B, systematic review of low-quality studies). Hoover's and the Abductor sign indicate nonorganic paralysis (SOR: C, small, lower-quality case-control studies).
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