What is the recommended evaluation and treatment for elevated serum prolactin?
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History and physical examination can distinguish among most physiologic, pharmacologic, or pathologic causes of an elevated serum prolactin level (SPL) (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C, expert opinion). Patients with unexplained elevations of serum prolactin or with a level above 200 ng/mL should undergo imaging of the sella turcica (SOR: C, expert opinion). Mildly elevated SPL due to physiologic causes may be managed expectantly (SOR: B, cohort studies) and pharmacologic elevations may be treated by discontinuing the causative medication (SOR: C, expert opinion). Elevated SPL due to pathologic causes requires both monitoring for complications and treatment of the underlying condition (SOR: C, expert opinion).
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