What blood tests help diagnose celiac disease?
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Histological confirmation of infiltrative lesions via small bowel biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing celiac disease. Four serum antibody assays may serve as a first- step diagnostic tool to identify biopsy candidates: immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase (IgA tTG), IgA endomysial antibody (IgA EMA), IgA antigliadin antibody (IgA AGA), and IgG antigliadin antibody (IgG AGA). IgA tTG and IgA EMA offer the best diagnostic accuracy. Patients with selective IgA deficiency may have falsely negative IgA assays (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, based on a systematic review, multiple small cross-sectional studies, and expert opinion).
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