Are opioids effective for treatment of chronic nonspecific low-back pain in adults?
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Tramadol and other opioids are more effective than placebo for pain relief in chronic nonspecific low-back pain (SOR: A, systematic reviews of RCTs). However, even sustained-release morphine plus oxycodone for breakthrough is no more effective than naproxen in reducing pain and disability in this population (SOR: B, lower quality RCT).
Evidence-based practice 16, no. 05 (2013): 14