When are empiric antibiotics appropriate for urinary tract infection symptoms?
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Healthy, nonpregnant women presenting with the triad of frequency, dysuria, and no vaginal symptoms have about a 96% chance of having an urinary tract infection (UTI) (positive likelihood ratio [LR+]=24.6). Since no urinalysis result would substantially change the high likelihood of disease for these patients, empiric therapy is appropriate (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B).
Journal of Family Practice, 55(4) 2006: 338+.