Supervision in the extension service in Helmand Arghandab Valley Authority, Afganistan
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Supervision is a process by which subordinates are assisted to perform their activities with increasing satisfaction to themselves, to people with whom they work and to the organization. The principal aim of Extension supervision is maximum growth and development of people. Yet, our recent supervisory practices are incongruent with this philosophy. Supervision is considered synonymous to administration and the supervisor major purpose is to make sure that subordinates do not deviate from the administrative rules and regulations. The chief duty of supervisor is inspection of the execution of plans, policies and procedures that are formulated at the higher level of administrative hierarchy. Extension activities are carried out through the H.A.V.A. Agricultural Division. The top administrative authorities who formulate the Extension programs are highly qualified experts; however, they should pay little attention to the significance of human relations. Supervision by most of them therefore, is conceived as a process of commanding subordinates to follow orders and to act according to direction given to them. The writer has a strong belief in the philosophy of democratic supervision. Democracy anywhere is participatory group life enjoyed by free individuals having the greatest opportunities for participation. Plans, policies, methods, techniques, and procedures of implementation are determined by the group. In here, central determination and direction techniques are replaced by a cooperative and coordinated group efforts. People are invited to take part in the development of plans and decisions which are likely to affect their lives. In the light of this philosophy, supervision must be based upon sound principles of human relations. Supervisor must possess a sound knowledge of the principles of supervision and continuous training in their application to his situation. With concept as such, this paper is condensed from reading of volumes of books and literature which are related to the subject. I hope this will be a valuable guide, not only to myself but to all of those who serve as supervisor in the Extension Service of Afghanistan.
Table of Contents
Introduction -- A look into the past history of extension service in Helmand-Arghandab Valley, Afghanistan -- The significance of extension supervision -- The supervisor as a leader -- Principles of supervision -- Characteristics of effective supervision -- Qualities necessary to the success of supervisors -- Characteristics and traits of extension supervisors -- Functions of the extension supervisor -- Evaluating the supervisor's performance -- Conclusion and recommendation for the extension service in Helmand-Arghandab Valley, Afghanistan.