Hardware Disease of Cattle (1993)
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Hardware disease is produced by a sharp object that pierces the stomach wall and gains access to the heart. A sharp object, such as a nail or piece of wire, may perforate into the heart sac. The object lies originally in a chamber of the stomach known as the reticulum. The reticulum "catches" all heavy objects that are ingested; feed and lighter material pass back into the rumen. When muscles contract, the "hardware" may be forced through the wall of the reticulum, diaphragm and heart sac.
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