The possible reasons of external X-ray radiation of LENR installations
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In numerous experimental LENR-related works were presented the results of investigation of hard electromagnetic radiation emitted from working chamber when palladium or nickel samples were exposed to deuterium and hydrogen. Such effects were observed regularly during electrolysis, gas discharge, thermocycling etc. Intensity of this radiation was uncorrelated with heat generation and isotope changes into working chamber. Moreover, this radiation was frequently registered in absolutely abnormal systems - e.g. behind the "black" screen (wall) which thickness much surpasses absorption mean free path of radiation. These abnormal results are similar to the results of investigation of external X-Ray radiation generated on outer surface of closed chamber at cavitation of liquid. In these works the radiation processes have been associated with a liquid (machine oil or water) jet moving through the narrow channel. It has been found during detailed investigation that the outer surface of the working chamber are sources of intense X radiation, generation of which is related to cavitation processes in the liquid jet bulk and subsequent excitation of internal shock waves. Interaction of these shock waves with external surface atoms of water jet, metal tube or thick screen leads to external X-Ray generation. The frequency (energy) of X-radiation depends on the types of atoms on a radiating surface (for a jet, it is water; for a channel, the metal atoms on the surface (e.g. Fe, Cu, Pb, etc) and increases with the increase of atoms charge.