Quantum nucleodynamics (QND) : the theory underlying the lattice simulation of LENR transmutations
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In the first half of the 20th century, a quantitative explanation of atomic structure (quantum electrodynamics, (QED), was created based on the known Coulomb force and a wave-equation, where integral quantum numbers are used to define allpossible electron states (Eq. 1): [psi]n,l,m = R n,l (r) Ym,l ([phi],[phi]) The energy states of electrons are given by unique combinations of n=1, 2, ...; l=0, 1, ..., n-1; ml = -l, ..., -1, 0, 1, ..., l; and ms = [plus or minus]1/2. The sequence and occupancy of allowed states can be stated as the Periodic Table and the energy of electron transitions can be calculated precisely in QED. In the second half of the 20th century, a nuclear version of the wave-equation (Eq. 2) led directly to the nuclear independent-particle model (IPM), where all possible nucleon states were defined by (Eq. 2): [psi]n,j (l+s),m,i = R n,j (l+s),i (r) Ym,j (l+s),i ([phi],[phi]) While many questions concerning the strong nuclear force remain unanswered, the quantal states of nucleons are given by: n=0, 1, 2, 3, ...; l = 0, 1, ..., (2n)/2; j =1/2, 3/2, ..., (2n+1)/2; m = -j, ..., -3/2, -1/2, 1/2, 3/2, ..., j ; spin (s) = [plus or minus]1/2; and isospin (i) =[plus or minus]1. The sequence and occupancy of allowed nucleon states in the IPM corresponds extremely well with empirical data.