The effects of projected films on singers' expressivity in choral performance
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of projected film visuals on singers' expressivity in choral performance. The study was divided into three phases. In Phase One, university choir singers (N = 21) viewed eight audiovisual pairings (two film excerpts and four choral etudes) and rated these pairings according to perceived music to film congruency. Based on these ratings, two choral etudes were identified that elicited the broadest congruency contrasts when paired with the film segments. In Phase Two, a different group of university choir singers (N = 116) rehearsed and prepared both of the selected choral etudes referred to as “Doh” and “Noo.” Subsequently, these singers were organized into smaller chamber ensembles (n = 11), and performed each choral etude three times under the following conditions: (1) while viewing congruent film, (2) while viewing incongruent film, and (3) with no film projected. After each performance, singers reported their level of self-expression. At the completion of all three performances, singers reported their preferred performance condition. Finally, participants listened to their audio-recorded performances and rated these for performance expressivity and personal preference. During Phase Three, choral experts (N = 8) rated performance expressivity and reported personal preference for each audio-recorded performance. A two-way ANOVA with repeated measures found significant main effects of both etude and film visual performance condition on participants' expressivity ratings (p < .001). Additionally, a significant etude x film visual performance condition interaction was discovered (p = .001). Participants rated self-expression significantly higher when singing with a congruent film compared with other conditions for both etudes (p < .001). Chi-square tests found most preferred experiences during congruent performances, and least preferred experiences during incongruent performances for both etudes (p < .001). Expressivity ratings for audio-recorded performances indicated significantly higher expressivity ratings for the performances influenced by the congruent film visual of etude “Doh” (p < .05), while no significant differences were found for etude “Noo” (p > .05). Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to filmmaking techniques, music education curriculum, choral rehearsal pedagogy, and composition/performance practice, with recommendations for future research.
Table of Contents
Introduction -- Review of literature -- Methodology -- Results -- Discussion -- Appendix A. Phase one - Recruitment script -- Appendix B. Film segments one and two - snapshot images -- Appendix C. Four choral etudes -- Appendix D. Phase one - script -- Appendix E. Phase one - consent form -- Appendix F. Phase one - Survey tool -- Appendix G. Phase two - singers recruitment script -- Appendix H. Rehearsal lesson plan -- Appendix I. Room and material dimensions -- Appendix J. Phase two - singer consent form -- Appendix K. Phase two - script -- Appendix L. Phase two - self-report survey tool -- Appendix M. Phase two - listening perception survey tool -- Appendix N. Phase three -- choral expert recruitment script -- Appendix O. Phase three - Choral expert consent form -- Appendix P. Phase three - script -- Appendix Q. Phase three - listening perception survey tool