Empirically derived profiles of classroom management strategies and related student outcomes : a latent profile analysis
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Disruptive behavior in the classroom can interrupt the development of academic and social behavior competence (Sutherland & Oswald, 2005). Problem behavior in the classroom often causes teachers to interrupt instruction and may influence others to engage in misbehavior. Therefore, effective classroom management strategies are essential for teachers to utilize. The purpose of this study was to investigate the multiple classroom management strategies which teachers use and the effects those strategies have on their students’ behavior and the teachers’ level of burnout. Participants included 68 K-3rd grade teachers and the students in their classrooms. Latent profile analysis was conducted to develop profiles of multiple classroom management strategies used by teachers. The model solution resulted in three profiles of multiple classroom management strategies, indicating the use of variable rates of praise, behavioral expectations and instructional management. An Ineffective profile used low rates of specific and general praise, moderate rates of reprimands and low amounts of behavioral expectations and instructional management. A Typical profile used higher rates of behavioral expectations and instructional management than the Ineffective profile. A Proficient profile used higher rates of specific and general praise than the other two profiles. Further, teacher levels of self-efficacy in classroom management, prior training and experience were added to the model as covariates. Using the Mplus Auxiliary function (Muthén & Muthén, 2007), differences among student variables and teachers’ level of burnout were compared. Significantly lower rates of aggression and a higher percent of time on task were found in classrooms in which teachers used a proficient profile of classroom management strategies. Implications of these findings are discussed for school-based school psychological practice.