Testing an integrated body image media model : focusing on a cross-cultural comparison between US and Korean college women
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[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHOR'S REQUEST.] The goal of the present study was to test the integrated model that explains the relationships between media use, cognitive and emotional outcomes, body image disturbance, and behavioral outcomes by comparing two cultural groups. Also, this project tested diverse moderating variables related to cognitive / emotional outcomes (appearance importance, self-discrepancies, and self-esteem) and behavioral outcomes (self-efficacy and perfectionism). Thin ideal media exposure predicted cognitive outcomes for U.S. women, body image disturbance and behavioral intentions for both U.S. and Korean women. No significant link was found in emotional outcomes. Thin ideal media exposure and body image disturbance were mediated by cognitive outcome (normative thinness) and the effect was stronger among Korean women. Also, body image disturbance predicted behavioral intentions for both groups. Appearance importance functioned as a moderator (normative thinness) for U.S women only. Self-discrepancy was a moderator of cognitive outcomes (thinness prevalence) for U.S. women, and predictor of emotional outcomes for both groups. Self-efficacy was a significant predictor of unhealthy behavioral intentions mainly for U.S. women. Self-esteem was a significant predictor of behavioral intentions for both groups. Perfectionism was a predictor of eating disorders for U.S women. Korean women were more likely to endorse normative thinness and their beliefs more strongly predicted body image dissatisfaction, compared to U.S. women. However, no cultural difference was found in emotional outcomes. Korean women indicated higher body image disturbance and behavioral intentions, the direct links between thin ideal media and body image dissatisfaction (and behavioral intentions) were stronger among U.S women than Korean women.
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