Fabrication of TIO₂-embedded PVDF membranes and their application in algae membrane bioreactor systems
Metadata[+] Show full item record
Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes with and without TiO2 (5% by mass) were fabricated and applied for high-density algae cultivation in membrane algae bioreactors (MBR). Microalgae species Chlorella Vulgaris was cultivated in the MBR systems fed with artificial wastewater at a target solids retention time (SRT) of 25 days. Under steady-state conditions, the MBR systems had an average algae biomass concentration of 2350 mg/L (COD unit) with simultaneous removal of about 78% of phosphorus and 34% of nitrogen form wastewater. The anti-fouling characteristics of membranes were evaluated based on the measurement of intrinsic, reversible and irreversible resistances, and the scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM) study. Total resistance of TiO2-embedded membranes was 65% lower than the control (membranes without TiO2 impregnation) during 90 days of operation. This research demonstrated that embedding TiO2 into the PVDF membranes resulted in membranes with better antifouling properties for high-density algae cultivation.