Sexual Objectification and Gender Role Conflict as Predictors of Drive for Muscularity: A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory
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Objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) is increasingly used to explain the body image-related experiences of men, as research indicates that men are at heightened risk for body image concerns because of sociocultural messages regarding appearance of the male body. However, objectification theory researchers have previously discussed the experiences of men without modifying the theory to consider factors unique to why men are also at risk for sexual objectification and the internalization process that ensues. Gender role conflict is introduced in the present study to better explain the objectification experiences of men. Results of a path analysis were that gender role conflict and sexual objectification experiences were predictive of drive for muscularity through a series of direct and indirect relationships including internalization of cultural standards of appearance, selfobjectification, body surveillance, and body shame. However, results also suggested that the internalization process that men experience in the context of sexual objectification is different than the process experience by women. It also appeared that the sexual objectification men experience promotes a drive for muscularity, which provides men with a sense of masculine agency.
Table of Contents
Introduction and review of literature -- Methodology -- Data analysis -- Discussion -- Appendix A. Gender role conflict scale -- Appendix B. Permission for use of gender role conflict scale -- Appendix C. Interpersonal sexual objectification scale -- Appendix D. Male assessment of self-objectification scale -- Appendix E. Sociocultural attitudes towards appearance questionnaire-internalization subscale -- Appendix F. Objectified bodies consciousness scale -- Appendix G. Drive for muscularity scale -- Appendix H. Demographic questionnaire