Reading in Mandarin and English: Using Reading Miscue Inventory and Retrospective Miscue Analysis with Adult English Language Learners
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[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHOR'S REQUEST.] This qualitative case study explored five college ELLs' reading processes in their native Mandarin language and the English language. The purpose of this case study is 1) to discover the reading process of five native-Mandarin-speaking adult ELLs at a large Midwestern university; 2) to learn their perceptions of reading; and 3) to learn about their strategy use in reading the selected materials in both Mandarin and English. I met with each participant individually. In the beginning I did the reading interests inventory and the Burke Reading Interview in Mandarin and in English to learn about their beliefs in the two languages. I surveyed their reading metacognition in both languages. Then I selected four pieces of texts (two in Mandarin and two in English) for RMI and RMA with each reader. At the end, I did post-interviews and post-surveys. Through the study, I kept a double entry journal. Then I conducted within-case analysis and cross-case analysis. This study found 1) by the end the participants believed reading was to know the meaning in both languages and helping them to examine their reading in their first language makes them more successful in their second language; 2) the readers used all linguistic and pragmatic language cueing systems to construct meaning in both languages, and they relied more on linguistic cueing systems in English; 3) they used all natural reading strategies and other similar strategies in both languages, and applied unique strategies to construct meaning in English; 4) the RMA sessions helped the participants build their confidence and revalue their reading, especially in English; 5) the participants became more metacognitive through the RMA sessions, and highly proficient readers may not be the most metacognitive ones. This study suggests RMI is an effective reading evaluation tool for the reading process of the first language as well as the second language. Reading teachers and ELL teachers could use RMI to understand their students' reading process and re-evaluate their students' reading comprehension. This study also suggests RMA is an effective instructional tool. The RMA sessions could build the students' confidence, focus more on meaning, and uncover their reading strategies, as well as their strengths and weaknesses. ELLs need to read actively and closely for meaning; use their successful native language reading strategies and unique strategies in their English reading; experience aesthetic reading for pleasure and read various genres and different topics; and read aloud as long as it is meaningful. ELL teachers need to help the learners establish their belief about reading; use RMI as an evaluation tool; use RMA as an instructional tool and help readers embrace their good reading strategies; encourage them to use their successful native language reading strategies and unique English language reading strategies; and encourage readers to read widely outside of classroom.
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