The Effect of Performance Condition on Second-Grade Student’s Rhythmic Accuracy While Sight-Reading
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The purpose of this study was to examine rhythmic performance accuracy while sightreading rhythms using either rhythmic speaking, body percussion, or instruments. A secondary purpose of this study was to study possible relationships between rhythmic error types (tempo or rhythmic accuracy) in each of these performance conditions. Sixty-two 2ⁿᵈ grade students participated in this study. Participants ranged in age from 7 to 8 years (M = 7.63, sd = .49). Forty-four percent of the students were male, and 56% of the students were female. Participating students sight-read 10 rhythmic patterns using 3 different performance conditions: speaking, clapping, and drumming. A repeated measures ANOVA was applied to examine rhythmic accuracy scores, and results indicated a significant difference in sightreading accuracy scores as a function of performance condition, F(2,122) = 65.82, p < .001. Results indicated that students scored significantly higher when speaking rather than clapping (p < .001) or drumming (p < .001). A Chi-square test of independence was conducted to determine if there was a significant relationship between error type and performance condition (speaking, clapping, and drumming). Results revealed a significant relationship between error type and performance condition, χ²(2) = 7.33, p < .05, with tempo errors occurring more frequently amongst all three conditions. Fifty-seven percent of all performance errors were related to problems with correct tempo. These findings suggest that students may begin to develop clapping and instrumental sight-reading skills in the primary grades, but they may not be able to master these skills until the child has had more time to master the gross motor movement and mental processing required for such tasks. Implications for elementary music teachers and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Table of Contents
Introduction -- Review of literature -- Methodology -- Results -- Discussion -- Appendix A. Consent, assent, and test forms -- Appendix B. Tables and figures -- Appendix C. Approval forms