Electrodeposition of copper for metamaterial fabrication
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[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHOR'S REQUEST.] Metamaterials, termed as a class of artificial material with exceptional characteristics obtained not from their composition but from their structures, typically use metallic and plastic repeating structures to provide negative refraction. Copper is considered for the metallic part of metamaterials due to its high thermal and electrical conductivity, excellent mechanical properties and cheap price. Electrodeposition through acid copper electrolyte is the most attractive approach to fabricating the metallic part of metamaterials due to its ease of control and high efficiency. However, since the presence of special designs such as repeating posts and strips on metamaterials, which requires bottom-up superfilling of micron and sub-micron scale features, additives are introduced in the process. Most of this study focuses on investigating the optimal parameters of electrodeposition of copper such as the composition of electrolyte and proper selection of anode and substrate geometry. Electrochemical methods are adopted to examine the mechanism of both the specific effects of additives and the interplay between additives. Characterization techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM), and use of an optical microscope are conducted to examine the topography and surface roughness of the deposits. Standard terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used to characterize the optical properties of metamaterials. Combined with the electrochemical methods, optimized parameters for electrodeposition of copper are obtained and desired fabrication methods for metamaterials are achieved in this study.
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