Examining effective leadership practices across cultures : a comparative study of higher education leaders in Kenya and the United States
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While many studies have examined effective leadership, few studies have examined effective leadership practices in higher educational settings (Braun, Nazlic, Weisweiler, Pawlowska, Peus and Frey, 2009; Bryman, 2007; Spendlove, 2007; Vilkinas and Ladyshewsky, 2011). In addition, far fewer studies have examined the relationship between cultural competencies and effective leadership skills in higher education (Smith and Hughey, 2006; Tang et al., 2011; Walker and Dimmock, 1999). In this study, a quantitative research approach was used to compare educational leaders from top ranked public universities in the midwestern state of Missouri in the United States to their counterparts in Kenya. The aim of the study was to examine whether there were any significant differences in how effective leadership was practiced in these two cultures. This study also examined the relationship between effective leadership and cultural competencies. Knowledge gained from the study was expected to facilitate a better understanding of effective leadership practices across cultures and provide insight on ways to advance, train, and develop cross-cultural leadership competencies in higher education settings."