Effect of water, rice flour and small red bean on physical properties of tapioca pearl
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[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHOR'S REQUEST.] This research studied the effect of water, rice flour, and small red beans on cooking qualities and texture of tapioca pearls. The gluten free benefits of this product along with the added nutritional value made possible by this research offer a better product to the health food industry. Water content was studied at the 45 and 48% level; rice flour content was studied at 10 and 20%, and small red bean content was studied at 20 and 40%. For cooking qualities, changes in water absorption, expansion ratio and cooking loss were studied. Hardness, springiness and adhesiveness were analyzed for raw tapioca pearls while hardness and springiness were analyzed for cooked tapioca pearls. The results showed that compared to 45% water, 48% water significantly increased the water absorption, expansion ratio and slightly reduced cooking loss. Higher water content significantly decreased hardness and increased springiness of raw and cooked tapioca pearl. Moreover, higher water content significantly increased stickiness of raw tapioca pearl. Rice flour significantly reduced expansion ratio and water absorption and increased cooking loss. With rice flour, tapioca pearl maintained its spherical shape better after cooking. Rice flour significantly increased hardness and decreased transparency of cooked tapioca pearl. Small red beans gave tapioca pearl a marble pink appearance and made the processing easier by significantly reducing the hardness, springiness and stickiness of raw tapioca pearls. Small red bean content should be limited to 40% because it can significantly increase cooking loss. Water content, rice flour and small red bean had a significant effect on cooking qualities and texture of tapioca pearls. They also changed the appearance and flavor of tapioca pearls, bringing new features to their composition and making it more nutritious. This research provides fundamental information, innovation, and the results of extensive tests--all of which were used to make better tapioca pearls. Because of the gluten-free content of the food products that can be made with tapioca pearls, this product will meet the needs of a more health conscious society. The new features add nutrition and introduce a new methodology that will improve the manufacturing process.