From Revolution To Ruin: A Preliminary Look at Rwanda’s First Two Presidents, Grégoire Kayibanda and Juvénal Habyarimana, and Their Administrations
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This paper brings together primary and secondary materials from a vast number of sources related to the first two presidents of Rwanda, Grégoire Kayibanda and Juvénal Habyarimana, in a preliminary look at the men and their administrations. Using a critical realist methodology, a rounded picture of the two presidents results, and the following findings, in particular are presented: the genocide was not an inevitable aspect of Habyarimana’s policies, and would not have occurred without the RPF invasion; the effect of literacy on the illiterate Rwandan society, from its introduction at the start of the twentieth century, had a profound impact on the socio-political and economic system, and the culture—an impact that has not been adequately recognized per se; the rhizomic nature of the Rwandan social and cultural matrix carried through even the dramatic shift from a chiefdom to independence and a constitutional republic; the questionable nature of Rwanda as a legitimate nation-state under the First and Second Republics; the reason why the single-party government system was chosen and why it failed both presidencies; and the impossible demands on the first presidencies to build an entire State infrastructure from the ground up in the period of a few years.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction -- Chapter 2. Research method -- Chapter 3. Disclaimer -- Chapter 4. Underpinnings of Rwandan Identity: ‘Tutsi’ and ‘Hutu’ Populations / Socio-Psychological Effects Of The Hutu-Tutsi ‘Divide’ / Socio-Political Structure From Habyarimana’s Grandfather’s Time / No Village Pattern / Northwest Region Semi-Autonomous -- Chapter 5. Habyarimana’s Grandfather / Father / Habyarimana’s Early Years -- Chapter 6. Kayibanda’s Early Years / Léon Classe Institute / Catholic Action and the Start of the “Hutu Movement / Office of School Inspection”/ Kinyamateka as Political Platform -- Chapter 7. The Bahutu Manifesto / Beginnings of PARMEHUTU Party / New Parties and the 1959 Elections / The Peasant Revolt (The Muyaga) and the Violence of Toussaint Rwandaise) / Communal Elections -- Chapter 8. Habyarimana: University / Officer’s School -- Chapter 9. Independence / Kayibanda’s Presidency and the First Republic / The Constitution Of 1962 / Municipal Elections / The 1963 Inyenzi Attacks / The One-Party State -- Chapter 10. Habyarimana and Kayibanda / Kayibanda’s Failure and Decline / The Coup d’État of 1973 -- Chapter 11. Following the Coup d’État: the CPUN -- Chapter 12. The MRND Party / Umuganda / Animations/ Jurisprudence Chapter 13. Economic Ills and the Growth of an Inegalitarian Society—the Urban- Rural Dichotomy -- Chapter 14. Challenges to Habyarimana and the One-Party State / The Akazu / Mobutu’s Influence / La Baule / Aggiornamento / The Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) -- Chapter 15. Brief Look at the RPF and Why They Invaded / The Hutu Ten Commandments / The 1991 Constitution / Multipartyism / ID cards -- Chapter 16. Youth Militias and the Fomentation of Violence / The Church at the End of 1991 / Opposition Parties Form Coalition -- Chapter 17. RPF Violates Cease-Fire Agreement / RTLM / New Coalition -- Chapter 18. Arusha Accords / Burundian President Assassinated / Habyarimana Sworn in as President of BBTG / The Failure to Install the Transition Government / The Dar es Salaam Summit and Habyarimana Assassinated -- Appendix A. Kayibanda’s Presidential Address (Excerpt) 1961 -- Appendix B. The 1962 Rwandan Constitution -- Appendix C. Kayibanda’s Address to The Country, 10 April 1964: “Democracy Is Incompatible With Violence” -- Appendix D. Message to the Nation from the President of the Committee for Peace and National Unity on the Occasion of the July 1973 Coup d’État -- Appendix E. Communiqué Issued at the End of a Regional Summit Meeting in Dar Es Salaam on 6th April 1994 -- Appendix F. Habyarimana Through the Eyes of His Wife, Agathe Kanziga -- Appendix G. A Comment on the 1962 Constitution