The relative impact of principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership on student achievement in Missouri middle level schools
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This study examined the relationship of three factors of principal leadership, managerial, instructional, and transformational. A total of 1,703 teachers from 133 middle level public schools in Missouri were included in the study, which was part of a larger study of middle level education being conducted by the Middle Level Leadership Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Two survey forms were used to collect data for this study. One survey collected data on managerial and instructional leadership, and the second collected data on transformational leadership. Data from the surveys were aggregated and analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlations, analyses of variance, and multiple regression equation estimates. Student achievement data were obtained from the spring 2006 administration of the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) tests. The study found relationships between factors of leadership with each other and with student achievement. School and principal demographic variables were also shown to correlate with achievement.