The development of the student counseling needs scale (SCNS)
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The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument that can be used in the identification of guidance and counseling needs of secondary school students in Kenya. The Student Counseling Needs Scale (SCNS) is a 52-item inventory. Data from 867 participants (423 males and 444 females) recruited from seven provincial schools in Kenya was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Five factors, human relationships, career development, self development, social values, and learning skills were assessed. Alpha coefficients for the five SCNS subscales ranged from .83 to .88, and .94 for the whole scale. Additional analysis revealed differences by gender and school in the way students rate their guidance and counseling needs. The findings highlighted the importance of using assessment instruments in identification of students' counseling needs. The findings also supported the recommendation that Kenya should develop guidance and counseling programs in all schools to address students' needs.