Immigration enforcement in America's Heartland
America's Heartland is now home to surging immigrant populations that buoy state and local communities. Rather than explore how to integrate foreign-born newcomers, state and local leaders (e.g., legislators, law enforcement agencies) accelerated immigration enforcement experiments after the collapse of comprehensive immigration reform during 2006-2007. Immigration control advocates in the Heartland have joined or led efforts to repel unauthorized immigrants. Efforts include restrictive laws and increased arrests and deportations. This paper discusses how restrictive policies and programs foster a culture of fear in immigrant communities, even as they fail resolutely, to achieve their central goal of reducing the number of immigrants, including the unauthorized, in new communities.