Electron beam lithography for nano-antenna fabrication
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Lithography methods have been used for patterning of small features for decades; in this research project, I examined Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) for fabrication of nano-antennas and then parameterized EBL variables to improve patterning. I overcame difficulties in some steps of this method to make the process easier and faster. In this experiment I analyzed the relationship between the variation of pattern size and tuning the correct irradiation dose for that pattern. According to my observations, increasing the size of patterns, cause the right dose to decrease. I also examined the effect of varying resist composition in three different sizes of pattern to find which resist would provide the best result: sharper edges and easier fabrication. For instance, MMA(8.5)MAA would be a good choice if the pattern features are large, whereas SU-8 would be great choice for patterning really small features on a nanometer scale. This research also demonstrated that Cr would be a better choice as a metallic coating as compared with Cu. Furthermore for metal deposition methods, sputter coating would be a better method in comparison with PVD, because it gives a less damaged device during lift-off and also Cr's lift-off time is much less than other metals. Finally, I worked on developing EBL multilayer patterning processes. Obtaining successful multilayer patterns of small features is helpful for fabricating the small complex facets of rectenna such as fabrication of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes.