Evaluation of the pass system: a multi-component function-based tier 2 intervention for escape-maintained student behaviors
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[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHOR'S REQUEST.] Among typically developing children, escape is one of the most common functions of problem behavior. Research suggests students who engage in escape-maintained behaviors may be at a greater risk for academic failure (Chuang, 2012; McIntosh, Horner, Chard, Dickey, and Braun, 2008b; Miles and Stipek, 2006). Schools are in need of a continuum of low effort, effective strategies for students who engage in escape-maintained behaviors. One low effort, easy intervention for students who escape academic tasks is the Pass System. The Pass System is a secondary tier intervention that includes choice-making, differential reinforcement, and response cost. The Pass System enables a student to receive differential reinforcement for choosing to do their work or use a pass to only do part of the work and provides negative reinforcement for refusing to complete tasks. It allows students to escape within limits and provide continued incentive for engaging in the desired behavior. The current study investigated the effectiveness of the Pass System using a multiple baseline design across four elementary-aged students engaging in escape-maintained behaviors. Four teachers implemented the Pass System with ongoing support and consultation. Interrupted time-series regression analyses and visual analyses were used to evaluate the effects of the Pass System on student behavior. Results indicated improvements in problem behaviors, compliance, and academic engagement. The Pass System was highly favored among teachers and students. The Pass System was found to be a viable intervention for educators to use with students who engage in escape-maintained behavior.