Boundary violations: a reflection of pessimism in Lucan's Bellum civile
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The desecration of boundaries abounds in Lucan's epic poem, Bellum Civile. The abundance of boundary violations serves as a literary tool through which Lucan conveys his attitude towards civil war. Lucan's boundary violations reflect his pessimistic attitude toward civil war, which is itself a violation. Throughout Roman literature, instances of boundary transgressions do occur, but no other author seems to use violations in the same way or to the same degree that Lucan does in his epic. Several examples of transgressions will be analyzed to determine how each portrays Lucan's pessimism.Lucan's portrayal of boundary violations expresses his negative view on civil war and his dissatisfaction with his current political surroundings.