The Planning Process and People (1993)
Planning takes place on many levels, ranging from the individual to the nation and beyond. It can be related to a tremendous variety of situations and time spans, so there is no reason to expect the planning process to be uniform in its application. The particular elements of planning, the structures and techniques used, and the degrees of complexity will vary widely, depending on the conditions, issues and units of concern. About the only elements common to any planning are the assumptions that what happens today has consequences in the future, and that people can do things in the present that will increase the probabilities of particular events and situations matching their expectations or aspirations in the future. In other words, the planning process is predicated on the notions that the present is the father of the future, and people can purposely intervene to give some direction to the flow of events.
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