Efficacy of various wavelengths of light emitting diode illumination on efficiency and performance parameters of broilers
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[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHOR'S REQUEST.] Lighting is essential for broiler growth, maturation, and reproduction. Globally, broilers are reared under various production systems including outdoor enclosures that do not allow for extensive control over their environment. However, in the United States large homogenous houses with extensive control over environmental factors including light source, intensity, photoperiod, and wavelength are used for achieving productivity goals. Improving these management practices is essential to improving production efficiency in commercial operations since the sole means of lighting for broilers is artificial. Traditionally incandescent lighting has been used as the standard throughout the industry. However, these bulbs are inefficient and costly due to their short lifespan. Compact fluorescent lighting has also been used, but can be disruptive to broilers. Therefore, new LED has become available to be utilized in this commercial setting. Using this technology would cut cost for the producer and could also have some advantageous effects for the broiler. Previous research has shown increased growth and performance of broilers under different wavelengths of LED light but it is unclear which light source would be the most advantageous. Two floor pen trials were conducted to determine the effects of using a standard white LED technology to the traditional incandescent and fluorescent, as well as, wavelengths of blue, green, and red light. Lights were kept at a standard 16 hour light and 8 hour dark cycle. Treatments for the first trial consisted of an incandescent, fluorescent, white LED, blue LED, and green LED, and combination of green and blue LED light. Each were set at 10 lux intensity and reduced to 5 lux at 28 days. No statistical differences were observed between treatments for production parameters during the evaluated 17, 35, and 49 day periods. Therefore, it was concluded white LED could be used and produce the same results compared to traditional lighting options. A similar second trial was conducted to determine the effects of using a standard white LED in comparison to LED bulbs of blue, green, and red wavelengths. Treatments consisted of a white LED, blue LED, green LED, and red LED. Each were set at 10 lux intensity and reduced to 5 lux at 28 days. Lights were kept at a standard cycle of 16 hours light and 8 hours dark. While differences were overserved for carcass composition data at 50 days of age for minor breast and wing yield between the varying wavelengths of light, none of these wavelengths had a greater effect on performance when compared to the white LED. Therefore it is concluded that white LED lighting should be the standard across the broiler industry. Its utilization will allow producers to reduce their cost of production without cutting into their profits from production.