African American males navigating their way to college : a socio-ecological resiliency model
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[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHOR'S REQUEST.] The majority of African American college students are female, with males representing five percent of the total four-year college population (U.S. Census, 2013). Despite the evolution of race relations in the United States, African American males experience increased residential and school segregation, reduced access to qualified teachers and school staff, discipline disparities due to zero-tolerance policies, and increased likelihood of experiencing school to prison pipeline, all of which reduce their likelihood of enrollment in college (American Psychological Association Task Force, 2008; Aud, Fox, and Kewel-Ramani, 2010; Orfield, Kucsera, and Siegal-Hawley, 2012). In order to shift from deficit to strengths-based perspectives on achievement, a qualitative grounded theory investigation was utilized to uncover essential resources in participants' (N=22) social ecologies that increased the likelihood of college enrollment. As a result, insight was provided into the particular socio-ecological influences and elements that contributed to "pre-college socialization and readiness," (Harper, 2010, pg. 5) that eventually led to enrollment at a four-year college. It was found that family was the most powerful resource in participants' environments, as the initial establishment of the non-negotiable family expectation that they would attend college greatly influenced their selection in peer groups, involvement in positive community programs, as well as whether or not they were able to take advantage of other socio-ecological resources in their environment, such as positive teacher relationships and involvement in school programs.
Access is limited to the campuses of the University of Missouri.