Synthesis and properties of small molecules designed to covalently capture native and oxidized forms of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)
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[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHOR'S REQUEST.] Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a validated target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The discovery of selective inhibitors with drug-like properties has proven to be challenging because there are ~80 PTP family members that share a similar and positively charged active site. To overcome these challenges, we have pursued two novel approaches for the covalent inactivation of PTP1B. Exo-affinity labeling agents exploit covalent reactions with amino acids outside the enzyme active site to gain both affinity and selectivity. We prepared several affinity labeling agents using a 12-step convergent synthesis. Enzyme assays revealed that some of these agents are capable of inactivating the enzyme by covalent modification. In another project, we prepared a low molecular weight mimic of the oxidized form of PTP1B that is generated in cells, during insulin signaling events. Seeking molecules capable of covalent capture of oxidized PTP1B, we treated this chemical model with several carbon nucleophiles, such as 1,3-diketones and sulfone-stabilized carbon anions. These carbon nucleophiles readily reacted with the model compound, under mild conditions to give stable adducts. Inactivation experiments revealed that 1,3-diketones are capable of inactivating the oxidized PTP1B at micromolar concentrations.