Thermal effects of high energy and ultrafast lasers
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Heat transfer describes the exchange of thermal energy, between physical systems depending on the temperature and pressure, by dissipating heat. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction or diffusion, convection and radiation. Heat and mass transfer are kinetic processes that may occur and be studied separately or jointly. Studying them apart is simpler, but both processes are modeled by similar mathematical equation in the case of diffusion and convection. There are complex problems where heat and mass transfer processes are combined with chemical reactions, as in combustion. The resulting behavior of heat transport in microscale will be very different from macroscale heat transfer based on the averages taken over hundreds of thousands of grains (in space) and collision (in time). From the microscopic point of view, the process of heat transport is governed by phonon-electron interaction in metallic films and by phonon scattering in dielectric films, insulators and semi-conductors. For extremely heated surfaces by high energy laser pulse, it is very difficult to measure temperature of flux at the heated surface because of the unendurable capacity of the conventional sensors. Laser is the tool of choice when drill holes ranging in diameter from several millimeters to less than one micro-meter. Instead of having advanced melting and resolidification modeling process recently, the inherent uncertainties of the input parameters can directly cause unstable characteristics of the output results which means the parametric uncertainties may influence the characteristics of the phase change processes (melting and resolidification) which will affect the predictions of interfacial properties i.e., temperature, velocity and mainly the location of solid-liquid interface. All of those processes can be considered under high energy laser interaction with materials.