Synthesis, characterization and applications of fats and oil derived phase change materials
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[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT REQUEST OF AUTHOR.] Phase Change Materials (PCM) are materials that absorb or release relatively large amounts of latent heat and are termed as "latent" thermal storage materials. A substantial market for PCM based thermal energy storage systems (TES) is developing in the industrialized nations with increasing focus on energy efficiency improvements in residential and commercial construction. This dissertation focuses on synthesis methods, performance evaluation and flammability characteristics of fat and oil phosphate derivatives as potential flame retardant PCMs. Phosphation of saturated fatty alcohols was identified as an effective way for transforming fats and oils into fire retardant PCM chemicals. The method using a hybrid mixture of phosphorus anhydride and polyphosphoric acid provided optimal yield of desired phosphate esters. Methods used to refine the phosphate esters are described with emphasis on industrially viable processes. Mixtures of phosphate esters and other non flame retardant PCMs were studied for extending the range of existing flame retardant PCMs. Use of bio-based PCMs in microwave heating applications was also investigated. This work demonstrates that fats and oil raw material can be successfully synthesized into high value flame retardant PCMs.
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