The English towns and the War of the Roses
Text from page 5: "The growth, material progress and political power of the English towns in the fifteenth century may claim some attention. In this study nothing is more noticeable than the gradual breaking up of the feudal elements of society. Little by little feudal ties disappeared; conformably, the bonds of society were of different fibre. A statute of Richard the Second prohibiting livery end maintenance tells the story of the retainer in place of the vassal, the substitution which had told in favor of Edward the Third against the chivalry of France.