Fabrication of a thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane incorporated with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles (NPS) for water purification
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[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHOR'S REQUEST.] A novel thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane with simple approach for reverse osmosis (RO) was fabricated through interfacial polymerization (IP) process using aqueous m-phenylenediamine (MPD) and organic trimesoyl chloride (TMC)-Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopaticles (NPs) mixture solutions. The IP process is operated on polysulfone (PSF) supporting layer, with the HANPs ultrasonically dispersed in TMC-hexane solution and consequently impregnated into the synthesized polyamide (PA) functional dense layer. Different concentrations of HANPs (~100nm in diameter) in TMC solution from 0 to 0.04 wt.% were chosen to reach different embedding conditions in the functional layer. Reverse osmosis (RO) process was simulated by 2000 mg/L NaCl solution under 300 psi, 25 degrees C, and samples were collected to evaluate the flux and the rejection after the system became stable. The results revealed a maximum average flux of (55.26 greater than or equal to 3.39) L/(m2h) with 0.01 wt.% HANPs with a significant increase in the flux of nearly 100% compared to that of around (28.36 greater than or equal to 1.07) L/(m2h) without HANPs, while the salt rejection remains almost constant at around (94.03 greater than or equal to 1.96) %, and the optimal concentration of HANPs was found at around 0.01 wt.%. The contact angle suggested that the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface was improved with increasing HANPs concentrations, and the TFN membrane was further characterized by (scanning electron microscope) SEM, (transmission electron microscope) TEM, and the HANPs were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis.